33 Mileham, PJR ‘The Fighting Highlanders’ (1993). Robert Thomson previously practiced as a solicitor in Glasgow and his father was a prosperous Minister of the Kirk; the Cunninghames were the distinguished family of Craigends, Refrewshire. Archives Office NSW Reel 663. A committed Church of England evangelical, he was sent from England in to assist the young New South Wales chaplain Richard Johnson. It was spartan living and the Board of Health reported ‘the Highland passengers are very scantily clad and the majority of them are in extreme poverty’. See in McBride, I. Advance warnings symptoms that the ethnic minority has had enough include milling, riots and ‘movements’. Like his cousin, Father James Quigley, he may have received his early education in Dundalk where he would have learned mathematics, Latin, Greek and modern languages. The Lulan was the first group migration from the estate after the disruption. . Suspicions among neighbours remained low for quite a time but in 1849 all came out. In other words, the changes heralded by the clearances were more than an economic reform of Highland agriculture, but an ideological change as well. Perhaps surprisingly, given the preponderance of those from Glasgow and environs, there were few of Irish birth or background. Like Sir John McNeill, Roger McNeill graduated in medicine from Edinburgh University where he studied surgery under Joseph Lister and physic under Thomas Grainger Stewart, physician to Queen Victoria. By 1833, when the Kirkham mill was the only one remaining in the district, an average of 15,000 lbs. For all his efforts Darling did not win friends. They were freed on bail almost immediately. When Governor Brisbane was recalled to London New South Wales was rapidly becoming a free colony. When heavily pressed by mobs, they responded to the orders of local magistrates and fired on their assailants, as the 93rd did at Tullow in 1817, killing two Irishmen and wounding another three. The fragmentary nature of the Cawdor bench books can still provide an impression of the general attitude of the sitting magistrates. There was considerable dissatisfaction with the selection process for single females and ships such as the Red Rover in 1832 had contained destitute women from institutions and workhouses in Dublin and Cork. They comprised all manner of ‘men from all parts of the colony, all going in for the grand land lottery, each believing that he or she was to be one of the fortunate twenty’. The cause of death was Erysipelas, a bacterial skin infection. Despite their enterprise, the Glovers were not in the same class as their neighbour, Johnson Cobain, son of ‘boss cocky’ Samuel Cobain, of another well established Ulster family.856 In 1881 George Glover took Johnson to court and recovered costs for the trampling of his land by two hundred head of cattle. The case against the Mathesons came before the Grand Jury in July 1859 and was dismissed. Jack Russell Terriers can also have congenital deafness, and many breeders are having their dogs''s also important to take care of their teeth by feeding them occasional congenital deafness, and many breeders are having their dogs''s also important to take care of their teeth by 3192. The 2nd Duchess, Harriet, for example, was a leading anti-slavery campaigner from the 1840s; such was her standing that when the famous American anti-slavery campaigner, Harriet Beecher Stowe, visited Britain in the early 1850s, she was hosted by Duchess Harriet both at Stafford House in London and Dunrobin Castle.175 Beecher Stowe was impressed with the 2nd Duke, and highlighted his social conscience, ‘He spends much of his time in reading and devising and executing schemes of practical benevolence for the welfare of his numerous dependents.’176 Duchess Harriet was one of the most high profile advocates of the anti-slavery movement in Britain at this time, and this, combined with her close relationship with the Queen, might have gone some way to improving the reputation of the family in metropolitan circles; their reputation in Highland circles, including the local press and writers exposing the crofters’ grievances, was less readily repaired. ‘Any true Protestant encountering a Catholic with a horse of £50 or more could pay £5, unhorse the idolator and ride away’. Ironically, Meagher of the Sword, who never got a chance to fight for his country’s independence in 1848, fought brilliantly and valiantly on behalf of his adopted homeland during the American Civil War. He burst into Samuel Marsden’s parlour where he and his family and Mrs. Elizabeth McArthur whose husband John was in exile in London, were at supper. They seemed to have been no more or less likely to demand their rights and ‘extras’ than the other nationalities. Should a peron of Finno-Ugric race they only be allowed to take pride in their nationality, whether Finnish, Estonian or Hungarian, and should they not be allowed to acknowledge their racial origins in the Ural Mountains of Russia? ), The Recollections of Sergeant Morris (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1967), pp. ";The Ballad of Ann Beaton";, an undated and unpublished ballad, was collected by the Campbells and included as a preface to their article in The Island Magazine. Their average age was a little over 24 and less than a quarter were married. This is a linear conception of culture where cultural identity is seen to reach back into a pure ancestral past, and this purity and self-containment must be defended against intrusion and contamination. An island‘s culture is both shaped and constrained by its physical boundary, helping to create a culture composed of both intimacy and separation. In 1830, horrifying accounts by the editors of the prominent Sydney newspapers the Australian and the Monitor describing the road gangs and the orgies of floggings at the remote penal stations drove Governor Darling to impose limitations on the floggings which the commandants of these stations could order. 3143. It is a remarkably well preserved path recorded in three Canadian cemeteries. The statement that ‘they were removed from the island and dumped in Glasgow to fend for themselves’is thus also unfair. His cruelty and inhumanity was widely exposed when his name was publicly linked with the colonial practice of the judicial torture of convicted prisoners. Yaoi, aliens, slash, yaoi, aliens, slash, yaoi, aliens, outer ring the current densities in the red. 313 Terence MacManus to Duffy, MS 6457. One of the reasons why the community blamed Archibald Matheson for the murder is that he had a reputation for making unwanted advances to women. II: History and Folklore, first published 1914, Brodick, 1982, pp. An entry in the castle’s secret-service payment books of that period show a Quigley, paid £40, who during his three year in Kilmainham gaol informed regularly on other prisoners and who later on his release bought a large farm in Kildare. Indeed, nowhere else was Irish Protestant participation in Orangeism so minute as in Newfoundland simply because there were so few of them in the population.645 Furthermore, the siege mentality that underwrote Orangeism in Ireland had little resonance in Newfoundland, for census reports revealed an increasing proportion of Protestants over Catholics in the population, and there was a preponderance of Protestant power in government circles from the 1874 election onwards.646 But the ancient myths of Derry and the Boyne were serving as symbolic representations of Protestant perseverance and victory over Catholicism, and the meanings of these narratives could be clearly read by both Orangemen and Irish Catholics in Conception Bay. “When it came to acts of inhumanity, Colonel John Gordon of Cluny had no equal.” In Campey Lucille H; An Unstoppable Force – The Scottish Exodus to Canada; Birlinn; Edinburgh, 2008 p. 135. He refused to break his Coronation Oath to uphold the Anglican Church and William Pitt resigned as Prime Minister over the refusal to allow it.465 The changes brought in by the Constitution of the Union were that Ireland was to be joined to Great Britain into a single kingdom, the British Isles of Great Britain and Ireland; the Dublin parliament was to be abolished; Ireland was to be represented at Westminster by one hundred MPs (a significant reduction from the Dublin Parliament), four Lords Spiritual and twenty eight Lords Temporal (all of them Anglicans); the Anglican Church was to be recognised as the official Church of Ireland; there was to be free trade between Ireland and Britain; Ireland was to keep a separate Exchequer; Ireland was to be responsible for two-seventeenths of the general security expense of the British Isles; Ireland was to be allowed to keep its own Courts of Justice and Civil Service; no Catholics were to be allowed to hold public office; there was to be no Catholic Emancipation.466. Abundant in wildlife, marine life and plants, the area had been a means of subsistence for the Gunai/Kurnai, in particular, the Tatungolung clan, who owned the Lakes’ shorelines to the sea. However, he was allowed to return to New South Wales where his ex-convict wife Esther had taken good care of his estate. If the Mathesons were not the perpetrators, the events had to be reconstructed to provide another solution, but one that again avoided the actual events of the case. 501 Hughes, Robert, The fatal shore (1987) p. 253. James Stephens wrote the oration. Whereas there is evidence of only one absconding from Kirkham – Francis Smith (John 1827) in 1835- at Braidwood eleven of Coghill’s assigned convicts absconded (and some of these had been with him at Kirkham). And rhetoric about Fenianism was still present in the mid-1880s. 99 Balfour, ‘Highland and Island Emigration Society’, p. 454. Bateson points out that their voyage ‘was one of the worst in the history of transportation’, one death to every seventeen prisoners. 515 Atkinson, Alan and Maria Aveling, (eds. They stand in different relations to the law: the Scotchman violates his own judgement, and offends against knowledge; the Irish peasant unites a species of patriotism with his aggressions.’669 To put this into context, approximately 162 thousand convicts were sent to Australia between 1787 and 1868. At the Australian end of the emigration story, the extreme shortages of labour, especially on pastoral stations, caused the colonies to change their regulations and recruit whole families who normally lacked the means to migrate. This arborescent attachment to the Irish language assumes greater significance later when the family goes to visit what they call ‘the future’. Nonetheless, by identifying it he distances himself from it, and suggests that the snowballing pluralism in Ireland is putting an end to such habits of thought. 46-7; Fairrie, “Cuidich ‘N Righ”, p. 33; Sterling, Highland Brigade, p. 215. Meagher regarded the enforced segregation as unnecessarily vindictive, writing in a local newspaper that ‘having separated us by so many thousand miles of all that was dear, consoling, and inspiring to our hearts, they should have still further increased the severity of this sentence by distributing us over a strange land’. One would be that the removal would be disproportionately of the poor, landless or old. I shall never forget this humane doctor, as he smiled and said, “Go on; this man will tire both of you before he fails!” During the time Fitzgerald was receiving the punishment he never uttered a groan; the only words he said were, “Flog me fair; do not strike me on the neck.” When it was over two constables took him by the arms to help him into the cart. These evocations were reinforced by the famous depiction in a series published by the Illustrated London News in the 1850s which showed pictures of evacuation and the great emigrant ships leaving the Highlands. Any hostile comment upon Britain’s way of telling our story is an unmannerly interruption and is nothing short of an Irish howl!’. Depressed by his failing financial position, he committed suicide on 28 February 1838 by slitting his throat with a razor. One of them had his own agenda. O’Brien’s brother’s intervention meant that the four prisoners convicted of treason did not travel on board a convict ship, but on the relatively comfortable, S. S. Swift. Towards the landlord, the Mackenzies, he was scornful for they had ‘laid out a great deal in improvements, which was of no use whatever, so that they got tired of it’. 807 Maguire, W.A. Nevertheless, he was adamant that his family should not join him.359 The Times, far from showing compassion, responded to O’Brien’s letters by calling him a ‘petulant puppy’.360 In contrast, the press in Van Diemen's Land, which had initially been hostile to the Young Ireland prisoners, within a few months had become more sympathetic, deprecating their actions but recognizing that it arose from a deep sense of patriotism and anger at the British government’s indifference to the Irish poor during the Famine.361. The looting continued. The Duchess of Sutherland, a wealthy woman in her own right, was portrayed more concerned about her public image than for the welfare of their tenants. Indeed, unlike the earlier march in Kelligrews, this procession was actually protected by extra police reinforcements brought in to prevent “interference” by the Catholic Riverhead party.636 This police presence gave the Orange march the stamp of respectability and legitimacy and implicitly branded the Catholic counter-action as dangerous and illegal. In Conception Bay, by contrast, the Labrador and seal fisheries were substantial and complementary enterprises that utilized the same boats and personnel year-round. The schooner Edwin (30 tons- Master, James Stewart) was normally used as a cargo vessel, ferrying goods from Sydney under contract to the colonial government.506 Amongst other things, she carried coal from the Hunter River (Newcastle); timber and grain from the Hawkesbury. 686 A. Atkinson, „Writing About Convicts: Our Escape From The One Big Gaol‟, Tasmanian Historical Studies, Vol. 806 Ordnance survey 1851 census, Map 14 shows Glover lease, property No. Small and isolated communities in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland showed their mettle by how they responded to Clearances and Improvements in the early nineteenth century. Such was the level of solidarity with the assailants or fear of their ability to impose sanctions that no one in these relatively small towns would identify the attackers. In 1995, forty-three years after O’Meally’s conviction for murder, lawyers moved to reopen his case after “unearthing” what they believed was fresh information supporting his innocence of the crime he had served 27 years for. Not one concrete fact was put forward or a single witness called who could positively identify him with the shooting. Headline numbers show that there was some decline in population but not to the extent that was previously assumed. Osborne stopped meat, tea, flour and sugar for the person involved for one week. There are those who decide every point, philosophise on every subject, whose education consists of a few scraps taken from immoral and impious writers. The Crittendens were Unitarians, not much given to church-going anywhere, and the nearest Unitarian church was across the river in New York. The Gairloch crofts under the new regime did not produce ‘on average, more than enough to maintain a family for six months … the fact appears to be established that the Gairloch crofters did not derive half of their means of living from the produce of their crofts…’ One of the croft managers conceded that even if the system were perfectly implemented it could not maintain ‘more than two-thirds of the population now residing upon them’. There were 444 on board in Londonderry, 425 on board in Sydney as per information given by Osborne to Pilot in Sydney Harbour giving a net loss of 19. A report in 1914 came to the view that out-migration from Scottish agriculture had been significantly beneficial to rural communities. . Even more importantly, raising a regiment enhanced reputation with the government of the day and gave access to inner circles of power. The request from the official concerned for remittance of the Prince Edward Island head tax read as follows: I am directed by the Board of Health of this place (Nova Scotia) to state to you that on the eighteenth August there arrived in this port from Glasgow, G. B., in the Barque ‘Lulan,’ Seventy - two Immigrants, destined to join their friends in the neighbourhood of Georgetown, P.E. She was described as ‘tall, of gracious countenance, enhanced by stately deportment. Likewise, many of the criticisms, whether directed at the Colonel, his Factor, the shipping agent or the owners of the Lulan, that the passengers were delivered to the wrong destination, do not distinctly stand up to scrutiny. 762 Coghill papers, Mitchell Library, Item 74. Among these were two men assigned to Coghill from the Barossa in 1839, John Simmons and Aaron Heaggley. These writers crafted a narrative with logic and reason but used sensationalism to titillate their readers. At the other end of Highland society were the very poor who obviously could not afford transoceanic migration. The existence of the head tax may well not have been known when the Factor contracted on behalf of the Benbecula migrants. 511 Previously married but separated convicts were allowed to remarry after a period of seven years so the marriage of Mary and Ambrose was perfectly legal. Meagher and John O’Mahony, founder of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, were present. It seems also to be conveniently forgotten by Scots of a nationalist tendency that many of the Highland clans were staunchly monarchist. In the first paragraph of the foreword of his first book he writes, But though the Irish dimension does indeed provide a linking thread, under-running all the different themes within the same familial bloodline, the nocturnes are the outcomes of many intermarriages, brief encounters and unexpected alliances, which often take them far away from their ancestral roots. 860 Attwood, B. By 1806 Ambrose was working for himself and he was now living with Mary Murrell who had arrived on the Experimenton 24 June 1804. 239 Mackesy, British Victory, pp. … Both in New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land, Scotch convicts are considered the worst, and English the best. But to shed more light on the dialects of place-making, there is the better known local legend about the Heart, a place-name with a complex derivation. James Williams was sentenced to 500 lashes. Initially, George worked as a labourer at Airly, the run held by William Thomson, Canadian nephew of Robert Thomson who was in partnership with Robert Cunninghame at Clydebank.841 Ellen Glover’s brother, William Dugan, also worked there, as a stockman, and it appears his older brother, Alexander, worked as a stockman at The Fulton, a Cunninghame run in a nearby parish. Brought up to strength by regular recruiting, the second battalions served as depot battalions, supplying the first battalions with drafts, and some served in Ireland or overseas.241. Indeed, one of the worst election riots that took place before the ‘denominational compromise’ was reached in high politics was actually ignited by a rivalry between two sets of Liberal candidates running in Harbour Main, Conception Bay: one team, supported by the Catholic bishop of Harbour Grace; the other, by local Catholic priests. The ‘1796’ Proclamation referred to Switcher as ‘a dancing master’, an innocent enough occupation but a great help to a Defender organiser.476 Under English rule, much of Irish culture had been discouraged, so the dancing master set out to help the Irish retain some. He was an unremarkable man of five foot three and a half inches, with a thin, wiry frame. 502 Historical Records of New South Wales, p.645. Alexander Doyle, one of the original deponents, told Bourke: ";he saw the corpse of the deceased and thought that it was the work of a woman or boy";.568 Lamont picks up this story and offers an elaborate tale in which Ann had an assignation with her lover that is observed by ";a jealous third party (a woman), shadowing them with set teeth and a hatchet uplifted";.569 Macphail also proposed that ";a certain woman was under suspicion to the end";.570 The Campbells concluded: ";the little evidence there is suggests that Ann Beaton was murdered by a jealous wife";.571 Laying blame on an unnamed woman was a strategy that allowed the community‘s values to remain unchallenged. On a quest to imagine what might have been George and Ellen’s sense of place, I was soon transported back to the place where their story began. Service during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars consummated the rehabilitation of the highlander in the eyes of the rest of Britain. 256 ‘Battle of Waterloo’, Caledonian Mercury, 3 July 1815, p. 3; Fairrie, “Cuidich ‘N Righ”, p. 30; Linklater, Black Watch, 77-9; Gardyne, Life of a Regiment, vol. Martin and Mitchel remained firm friends throughout their lives. A man can get everything be it for money. Coghill received a petition, signed by eight passengers, that the food put on board for the voyage by the charterer was insufficient and that a survey be made immediately of the stores.735 Some of the passengers returning to England on this voyage were key members of colonial society and may have been difficult customers: John Wylde736, the former judge advocate, Major Morisset; Dr Morgan Price, Dr. John Dobie, Dr. J. Hamilton and Dr. Crockett (all ship’s surgeons); and James Atkinson (author) and Charles Macarthur. This is not to claim that the factors were without sympathy for the small tenants, or that they were not aware that the clearances were often blamed for their economic difficulties. Before I make a homestead or raise a crop, I must clear a perilous forest; then, despite the strength in my arms, I will be world-weary and spent before my family are yet grown. Even when the convalescents returned to action, the debilitating effects continued.247. 507 The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser , 2 February 1804, p 4. Few scholars had noticed this and no one really knows why this was the case. Marsden was deeply offended but could not stop the tide that was rising against him. Sealers had to be aware of the possible presence of runaway convicts who would steal any boat more seaworthy than their own and the store of sealskins as well. This was surprising as, prior to his transportation, he had proved himself to be a skilled parliamentarian. He became Captain of a company of Zouaves in the exclusively Irish Sixty-Ninth Regiment.431 He subsequently formed the New York Irish Brigade, who fought bravely – and suffered many losses – in all of the major battles. Many were drained but they later became more highly valued for drought proofing, contested by squatters and selectors alike. Drawing a comparison with the infamous evictions that attracted searing accusations at the same time and later on during the potato famine of late 1840s, Mackenzie reckons: Whatever judgment may be passed on this step as a move of improvement, whether judicious, wise, economic, or not, it was at least free from the harshness, even direct cruelty, and inconsiderateness exampled in not a few contemporary cases.959. Messrs. Brown alleged improper conduct on Coghill’s part by calling at the Cape of Good Hope in bad weather, thereby placing the vessel at risk and taking passengers between ports in India with no payment to the owners.726 Although in East India Co. ships it was common practice for the fares paid by passengers between ports to be considered Captain’s perquisites, it was technically against their charter. Internal harmony was challenged by class divisions, tensions between native- and Irish-born, or factional differences based on home counties in Ireland648—a further refining of ethnic identity. . While Fenianism had not come in overt form to Conception Bay, its imagined presence in the mental landscape of local English Protestants was as important as the reality in terms of ethnic relations in the area. In this respect, therefore, the Highlanders were hardly unusual: it was everywhere difficult to persuade rural folk to emigrate. Marsden seems to think that all who may happen to differ in opinion to him must be influenced by impure motives.”. 14 http://www.carolriddell.co.uk/Tireragan.html. The tenacity of rural people was legendary, and there were familiar echoes of this psychology in, for instance, the North Yorkshire Pennines. Minority report Local African-American business owners face the challenges of an open market A white Charlottesville resident is about two-and-a-half times more likely to be a business owner than is a black resident, according to U.S. Census figures. By 1840, the family was living in Maitland and 17 year old Isabella married Henry Wood, a convict with a Ticket of Leave on 17th April, 1840 at the Presbyterian Church in Maitland. These two magistrates took further evidence, found Ryan guilty and forwarded him to Sydney with a recommendation to the Governor that his ticket of leave be withdrawn. They were increasingly designated as redundant and urged to leave, yet lacked the means to do so. 10s per head and short provisions associated with this may well have contributed to the reduced state in which the migrants arrived and even to some of the deaths, particularly among the children. Situated on the main road south from Sydney, it was ideally positioned to supply the needs of these more distant settlers. Sometimes the strands were tipped with metal to give an extra bite. 40, 75-6, 64 ff. The metaphor for human culture should be more the mangrove than the tree.868. Travel to other parts was not confined to a favoured few, or to those who chose or were pushed to emigrate. His disposition was described as cheerful and social. Nearly all the immediate and extended family of Angus and Janet McKinnon from Loch Fada in Colonsay abandoned Colonsay in 1831 and migrated together to Erin Township in Wellington County, Ontario, north of York (later called Toronto). The estate was initially intent on retaining the displaced population and seeing it resettled and employed in its new economic ventures, however many of the displaced chose to emigrate in rejection of the plans. leasehold of Mary Ann Glover, No. The other men knew of his plans. 84-103; Marjory Harper and Michael E. Vance, ‘Introduction’, in M. Harper and M.E. 368 Mitchel, Jail Journal, 26 August 1851, pp.260-261. The upshot was that Rafferty was sentenced to 5 years for manslaughter and Jane to 2 years goal in Paramatta Penitentiary for harboring Rafferty. One convict survived 8,000 lashes during his time of servitude. 514 Pike, Mary, Ambrose and Mary (1997) p.5. 850 The name ‘selector’ related to the general requirement to peg the boundaries of an unsurveyed block before registering an interest. ), Clyde Company Papers, vol 1 (London: Oxford University Press, 1941), pp. Coghill laid information before the Cawdor bench concerning the robbery in which he stated that the barn was opened with false keys and a quantity of flour, between 500 and 600 lbs. The essential context was one of population revolution. Most of all the 1814 evictions of the small communities living in Strathnaver, in the heart of the estate, became notoriously controversial; Patrick Sellar, the factor responsible for implementing the plans, was charged with arson and homicide and subsequently acquitted in 1816 in a trial whose verdict posterity has overturned. During this time, they were imprisoned in either Kilmainham, Richmond or Newgate Jails in Dublin, or the Old Gaol at Clonmel in County Tipperary. All but one of these families was from the island of Benbecula, the one other leaving from the nearest shore of South Uist. The Cole-Hamilton family owned Gortin Glens, so estate business took Major Cole-Hamilton to Pomeroy. 125-133. His physical ability was also impressive. . 356 His spirits were lifted only by the fact that the exiles continued to meet unofficially, notwithstanding the risks. ‘On the retreat to Corunna’, wrote a private of the 42nd, ‘I thought a soldier’s life the most wretched and miserable situation of any that man could be placed in.’244 Amidst the widespread demoralisation, with many soldiers and their families, bare-footed, straggling and getting lost on the line of retreat, a soldier of the 71st recalled: ‘There was nothing to sustain our famished bodies or shelter them from the rain or snow.’245 As discipline faltered, highlanders like other soldiers fell out seeking plunder and lapsed into drunkenness – a private of the 92nd drowned in a cask of rum while his colour-sergeant was later caught in the act of plunder, and had a death sentence commuted to eight hundred lashes. Some were actually brought in from neighbouring communities for this purpose. 7, 61-2, PANL. 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