When a consequentialist actually thinks about it, all of a sudden I expect a lot of rules of behavior to come up. Deontology is a related term of consequentialism. Whereas, consequentialism focuses on the consequences of the action. Imagine there is only a 1% chance the accused is innocent? From local and state-level elections to federal elections, it’s nearly always a Democrat or a Republican who wins. Imagine you are this voter. According to consequentialism, the morality of an act can not be measured only in terms of its consequences, while the same character is found on deontology, according to the principles which governed the decision to produce this act. Do it because it's the right thing to … Recall the scenario where there are so many political parties that the elected leader wins with less than 10% of the vote, and the vast majority of people are entirely dissatisfied with the result. Keep this up for long, and you build a house of cards so large, it need not even fall over to understand the mess it creates. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. In the West, virtue ethics’ founding fathers are Plato andAristotle, and in the East it can be traced back to Mencius andConfucius. 90%? they aren’t mutually excluded.I would feel very guilty, and probably am guilty for selecting my father over the 5, but when you add love, the situation can get kind of blurry. Two examples of consequentialism are utilitarianism and hedonism. You make some very solid critiques, some of which I hadn’t considered previously. Ethical egoism can be understood as a consequentialist theory according to which the consequences for the individual agent are taken to matter more than any other result. Deontology is the theory and/or idea that judges the morality of an action based on the action’s adherence to the overall rules. We might also ask ourselves, “What are the long-term consequences of accepting poor outcomes in the short-term simply because they are more ‘realistic’?” (In other words, what are the long-term consequences of consequestialism itself?). The outcome feels concrete and realistic, and the situation is finite. I enjoyed reading this and will promote it if I figure out how to, and I will be seeking out your other works. (This is why it’s so important for politicians to garner early support, because if they can hit a tipping point with their popularity, it becomes far easier to tip over the remaining dominoes.). The deontology constituted obviously is more stricter limit to people’s behaviors compared to a consequentialism. Consequentialism, Deontology, and the Ethics of Voting The debate of consequentialism vs. deontology often resurfaces during election season. Instead, you vote for the Republican nominee to make sure your vote “counts.” After all, you would rather see the Republican nominee win than the Democratic one; voting for your preferred, third candidate might swing important votes away from the Republican front runner, helping the Democratic party’s cause. More likely, the people will start looking for alternative solutions. We might call this a sliding scale of fidelity to categorical imperatives. Realistically, these are very complex moral and ethical questions – and at least in my opinion, it’s hard to say if there is a single “right” answer. Utilitarianism (also called consequentialism) is a moral theory developed and refined in the modern world in the writings of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). If this condition by 69 itself establishes self-evidence, what work is left for the others to do? I’ve been thinking about these same issues a great deal recently and I’m very glad to have found someone who can explicate the different ethical philosophies as well as you have here. There are many different theories in ethics with consequentialism and … You know non-participation is frowned upon, but you would rather accept this fate than potentially make a mistake in the voting booth out of ignorance. Greater solidarity and consistency in the political process. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast. Furthermore, leaning exclusively on one’s categorical imperatives has its own problems – namely because most of us have different values, beliefs, and categorical imperatives in the first place. It's also, as @ Pfhorrest has pointed out, somewhat of a false dichotomy, or perhaps more generally a purely thought out question. Thus, egoism will prescribe actions that may be beneficial, detrimental, or neutral to the welfare of others. You would be hard-pressed to find an American who hasn’t heard the words “lesser of two evils” uttered near election time. We compromise our values and beliefs little by little, until they are no longer recognizable. Therefore we might conclude two-party systems promote democracy and majority representation, whereas multi-party systems divide people further and lead to outcomes even less acceptable on the whole. For instance, if you are a Democrat who supports Bernie Sanders, but you believe the prospect of a Trump presidency is the worst possible outcome – voting for Hillary Clinton may be more realistic, and serve to prevent the Trump presidency with more certainty, than voting for Bernie Sanders (even if you despise Hillary Clinton). No spam. I will describe all of them briefly,… To stray from this duty would be to undermine the very foundation of their belief system and morality. Let us first acknowledge most consequentialist decisions implicate some type of compromise, setback, or less-than-ideal choice in the short-run, in order to obtain a favored outcome in the long-run. But let us consider that America would not be here in the first place, had our founders simply accepted the “better” of options provided to them at the time, rather than venturing out and creating new options that adhered to their values, beliefs, and goals. Deontology vs. Consequentialism Even though Deontology and Consequentialism can be extremely similar, both contain key factors that make each idea unique and very different. For Deontology vs. Consequentialism, it gets similarly murky. Means really don't have any individual existence. Consequentialism is the theory and/or idea that the morality should be judged on the action’s overall outcome or consequences. In a nutshell, consequentialism reinforces an infinite loop whereby our real, true goals are always postponed – whereby we are always settling for less. Furthermore, two strong parties add some solidarity and consistency to government and political processes in the long-term – and in some sense, makes it easier for the average voter to choose a side. Whereas teleology lets end justifies means because it is the study of finality. Are they living in a fantasy without regard for the consequences of their decisions? Get a brand new article like this in your inbox every Friday. Reply. My belief is that neither consequentialism nor deontology offer a perfect solution for ethics, whether in the context of voting or other types of decisions. But…. Use that power and make a difference; make any other choice and you’re not – or worse, perhaps making the wrong type of difference. Some people emphasize one or another, but that doesn’t mean they deny the importance of the others. This chapter first examines Sidgwick’s critique of deontology and defence of consequentialism, arguing that it is repeatedly unfair, holding the principles it criticizes to standards Sidgwick did not apply to his own consequentialist axioms, and in particular fails by lacking Ross’s concept of prima facie duty; this shows both in Sidgwick’s critiques of deontology and in his equivocal statements of his axioms. It’s an endless cycle. Yet this is both a blessing and burden, isn’t it? Therefore, a wrong action under consequentialism could be right under deontology. But if you can’t decide in the next few weeks, they will flip a coin and make the decision for you. He suggested to treat humanity “never merely as a means to an end but always at the same time as a… However, this may be mistaken. Consequentialism is a type of normative ethical theory which states that the moral quality of an action is completely determined by its consequences, and nothing else. Moral philosophy is dominated by the distinction between deontology, or the justification of actions that conform to a particular set of duties, and consequentialism, or the justification of actions that advance a desirable set of outcomes. And the more monkeys who are observed to be jumping off, the easier it becomes for subsequent monkeys to do the same – even if they had some initial reservations about it. Limited, potentially unsatisfactory voting options. In the West, virtue ethics’ founding fathers are Plato andAristotle, and in the East it can be traced back to Mencius andConfucius. This ethics is contrasted to consequentialism and utilitarianism, deontology states that some acts are always wrong regardless the outcome unlike a utilitarian or consequentialist, and that a good will is the sole intrinsic good. Ethics is the study of right and wrong. Are people who vote for third party candidates completely nuts, then? But now consider what happens in the long run if we always make the consequentialist decision. polls, primaries, media) – even when this candidate wouldn’t be your first choice. Many people would agree (including many consequentialists) there are certain things they would never do. Instead of working alongside one another to discover the truth – fighting productively to find truly optimal solutions to society’s problems – many people instead surround themselves with “yes” people, entrench themselves in confirmation bias, and become defensive to a point where ongoing hostility undermines higher levels of sophisticated, cross-party collaboration. Consequentialist Moral Theories vs Deontological Moral Theories Contemporary consequentialist theories are mainly divided between act-consequentialism and ruleconsequentialism. share. Psychologist Robert Waldinger discusses this in detail in his book Influence. German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was an opponent of Consequentialism, and propagated a deontological moral theory of ethics, which is popularly known as Kantianism theory of Ethics. The debate of consequentialism vs. deontology often resurfaces during election season. It’s one thing to compromise with your date on restaurant or movie choices, but it’s another to compromise one’s deepest beliefs and values. The vast majority of us probably fall somewhere in between, all with slightly different perspectives and beliefs, depending on the issue at hand. It defines what is permitted or forbidden based on its consequences. A deontologist, on the other hand has bears the risk, when s/he makes the choice to abide by what he finds correct, as per apriory means on his/her dispense. They clash because each offers a different approach to determining “right” from “wrong.” *This leans more towards deontology and your categorical imperative(s). Now let’s discuss these first two possibilities in more detail. Utilitarianism (also called consequentialism) is a moral theory developed and refined in the modern world in the writings of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). There are three major categories of ethical systems that students typically learn about in philosophy classes: consequentialism, deontology and virtue ethics. In this way, consequentialism ethics provide criteria for the moral evaluation of actions, while also recommending rules or decision-making criteria for future actions. For starters, examine your own position on the death penalty: As a bonus question, consider that many innocent (wrongly accused) people have been put to death. Voters may feel they must settle for the options provided, rather than inventing new and improved options. Discussing alternatives can be interesting to contemplate, but reality sets in when voting day approaches. In context|ethics|lang=en terms the difference between consequentialism and deontology is that consequentialism is (ethics) the belief that consequences form the basis for any valid moral judgment about an action thus, from a consequentialist standpoint, a morally right action is one that produces a good outcome, or consequence while deontology … The existence of a strong two-party system has it’s pros and cons. This is a more specific way of delineating what might be the “highest human Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. You can attempt to resolve this conflict a few ways: In this situation, you vote for the political candidate who most closely aligns with your beliefs and interests under the circumstances, and who’s in a likely position win based on available information (e.g. https://opinionfront.com/consequentialism-vs-deontology-vs-virtue-ethics Example: Robin Hood steals from the rich to help the poor. For instance, most people would agree that lying is wrong. In this essay I am going to explain the differences between the ethical schools of consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics and argue that in my opinion deontology is the most reasonable theory of the three. Elections and other voting matters often require majorities and/or quorums – these may be difficult to obtain in a multi-party system where votes are cast in many directions at once. Voters of different backgrounds, belief systems, life experiences, etc. Perhaps there really are only two likely contenders – and your practical choices are indeed limited. This is especially true in the case of voting and politics. Your views align with a third, less popular candidate – and you vote for them, even though their chances of winning are slim. The purpose of this article is to explain different ethical theories and compare and contrast them in a way that's clear and easy for students to understand. Deontology vs Consequentialism vs Utilitarianism. It persisted as the dominant approach in Western moralphilosophy until at least the Enlightenment, suffered a momentaryeclipse during the nineteenth century, but re-emerged inAnglo-American philosophy in the late 1950s. If the consequences are good, the action is good. DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233625.003.0008, Introduction: British Ethical Theorists from Sidgwick to Ewing, 8 Act-Consequentialism, Pluralist Deontology, 11 Self-Benefit, Distribution, Punishment, British Ethical Theorists from Sidgwick to Ewing, 6 Moral Truths: Underivative and Derived, 8 Act-Consequentialism, Pluralist Deontology, 11 Self-Benefit, Distribution, Punishment. Thank you for this!! We are used to oppose consequentialism deontology to Kantianism is the most typical representative. When a two-party system fails to address the needs of its citizens, it’s unconscionable to expect them to simply accept failure. There is an element of compromise in consequentialist decisions, and most people would agree compromise is a necessary aspect of human cooperation. Consequentialism vs Utilitarianism . In the thought experiment above, we might ask ourselves whether or not any person – woman or man – should be expected to accept and tolerate abuse and/or infidelity at any level. I know it’s been a long time since your comment, but you’re very welcome! Better capability to organize party interests, campaigns. America wasn’t founded on settling for meager options; it was founded by visionaries who created their own options upon realizing existing options weren’t satisfactory. A central concept in deontological ethics is the categorical imperative, which suggests morality is subject to certain unconditional and absolute duties. Liberal and conservative priorities are aligned on opposite sides of two theoretical divides in moral philosophy: "consequentialism" vs. "non-consequentialism" and "deontology" vs. "teleology". Interestingly enough, staying true to one’s beliefs and morals is also quite pragmatic. This hypothetical situation would result in a scenario where more than 90% of the voting public is unhappy (probably not ideal). When so many others are doing it, they must be right. Consequentialism and Deontology are clashing moral philosophies in the field of Ethics. This same complexity arises when we examine categorical imperatives in politics. We commit a “wrong” to make a “right,” which doesn’t seem so bad with respect to any one decision – in fact, it may seem or even be optimal – yet in the long run, if this is always our go-to strategy, then by definition we are always committing wrongs. VIRTUE ETHICS, DEONTOLOGY, AND CONSEQUENTIALISM 6 1. You can find out where your own line is drawn by asking yourself when, and in what situations, you place categorical imperatives above consequences. In this way, consequentialism ethics provide criteria for the moral evaluation of actions, while also recommending rules or decision-making criteria for future actions. , we explored ( some of ) the logic and framework behind consequentialist voting decisions a. Contemplate, but reality sets in when voting day approaches voter to choose from looks at the wanted... 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